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Cram Notes  Cram Notes - Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes!

What's in the Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes?

Our Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes will provide you with a clear and complete synthesis of the most important points you need for your Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law exam. The table of contents of our Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes is shown below.

Preview the Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes

 

First Year Subjects: Contract Law Notes, Criminal Law Notes, Legal Professional Conduct Notes
Second Year Subjects: Property Law Notes, Administrative Law Notes, Business Associations Law Notes
Third Year Subjects: Litigation (Civil Procedure) Law Notes, Litigation (Criminal Procedure) Law Notes, Evidence Law Notes, Federal Constitutional Law Notes
Elective Subjects: Commercial Law Notes, Intellectual Property Law Notes, Legal and Social Theory Notes

Table of Contents for Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes


1.  Introduction. 4

A.   How to use Cram Notes. 4

B.   Abbreviations. 4

2.  Issues in Police Accountability. 4

3.  Discretion to Admit Evidence 4

i.        Approach. 5

1)     Threshold relevance test 5

2)     Section 138. 5

ii.       Section 138(3) – Considerations as to desirability/undesirability. 5

1)     Probative value – s 138(3)(a) 5

2)     Importance of evidence – s 138(3)(b) 6

3)     Nature of relevant offence – s 138(3)(c) 6

4)     Gravity of the police impropriety – s 138(3)(d) 6

5)     Recklessness – s 138(3)(e) 6

6)     Considerations under the ICCPR – s 138(3)(f) 6

7)     Whether other actions will be taken – s 138(3)(g) 7

8)     The difficulty of obtaining evidence without impropriety – s 138(3)(h) 7

4.  Police Powers to Arrest and Question. 7

A.   Threshold question - Has there been an offence?. 7

B.   Has there been a deprivation of liberty amounting to arrest, or merely voluntary assistance with inquiries?. 7

i.        Actual arrest 7

ii.       Was arrest necessary?. 8

iii.      Deemed “arrest” for certain volunteers. 8

C.   Mental element – Is there suspicion on reasonable grounds?. 9

D.   Was the exercise of arrest powers tainted by improper purposes?. 10

i.        Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act (NSW) 10

ii.       Common law – “as soon as reasonably practicable” 10

E.   Was there procedural invalidity?. 11

i.        Was a caution given?. 11

ii.       Was there notification of grounds of arrest?. 12

iii.      Was there proportionality of force used in making the arrest?. 12

iv.      Was there a power to enter the premises to effect arrest?. 12

1)     Effecting an arrest 13

2)     Prevent breach of peace or felony. 13

3)     Implied consent or licence to enter 14

v.       Was there compliance with other responsibilities?. 14

5.  Police Powers to require Identity to be Disclosed. 14

6.  Police Powers to Search & Seize 14

A.   Introduction.. 14

B.   Suspicion on reasonable grounds in relation to searches/seizure. 15

C.   Search, Seizure and retention under the common law.. 15

i.        Search of person and seizure with arrest 15

1)     Plain view doctrine (arrest of the person) 15

2)     Timing of seizure before arrest 16

ii.       Retention. 16

D.   Search, Seizure and retention under LEPRA.. 17

i.        Search and seizure on premises for dangerous article. 17

ii.       Search of person and seizure without warrant or arrest 17

iii.      Search of person and seizure with arrest 17

iv.      Personal searches. 18

1)     Ordinary and frisk search. 18

2)     Strip search. 19

7.  Search Warrants. 19

A.   Degree of compliance necessary. 19

B.   Validity of issue of search warrants. 20

i.        Were the applicant’s obligations met and is the warrant in the prescribed form?. 20

1)     Disclosure obligations. 20

2)     Did the authorised officer act properly?. 22

C.   Lawfulness of execution of warrants. 23

i.        Was there compliance with obligations placed on police in execution of search warrant?  23

1)     Service of Occupier’s Notice. 23

ii.       Was there a valid search?. 23

8.  Admissions and the Right to Silence 24

A.   Definition.. 24

i.        Admission. 24

ii.       Representation. 24

B.   Right to silence. 24

C.   Verballing – the warning requirement to the jury. 24

D.   Requirements to record admissions. 25

i.        Approach. 25

ii.       Section 86 of the Evidence Act 26

iii.      Section 281 of the Criminal Procedure Act 26

iv.      Differences between s 281 of the CPA and s 86 of the EA. 26

v.       Is there an admission?. 26

vi.      Is the offence indictable & is the person a suspect?. 27

vii.     Was the admission made in the course of official questioning?. 27

viii.     Are the two periods of interviews able to be considered as separate interviews?. 28

ix.      Is there a reasonable excuse why the admission was not recorded?. 29

E.   Exclusion of admissions. 29

i.        Violence, oppressive, inhuman and degrading conduct 29

1)     Is the impugned conduct violent, oppressive, inhuman or degrading?. 29

ii.       Unreliable admissions. 30

1)     Circumstances surrounding making of admission. 30

2)     Factors relevant to likelihood of adversely affecting truth of admission. 31

iii.      The fairness discretion. 32

1)     Admissibility of covertly recorded conversations. 32

2)     The protective principle. 33

3)     Forensic disadvantage. 33

iv.      Discretion to admit or exclude improperly or illegally obtained evidence. 34

Preview the Litigation - Criminal Procedure Law Summary Notes

 

First Year Subjects: Contract Law Notes, Criminal Law Notes, Legal Professional Conduct Notes
Second Year Subjects: Property Law Notes, Administrative Law Notes, Business Associations Law Notes
Third Year Subjects: Litigation (Civil Procedure) Law Notes, Litigation (Criminal Procedure) Law Notes, Evidence Law Notes, Federal Constitutional Law Notes
Elective Subjects: Commercial Law Notes, Intellectual Property Law Notes, Legal and Social Theory Notes

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