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Cram Notes  Cram Notes - Evidence Law Summary Notes!

What's in the Evidence Law Summary Notes?

Our Evidence Law Summary Notes will provide you with a clear and complete synthesis of the most important points you need for your Evidence Law exam. The table of contents of our Evidence Law Summary Notes is shown below.

Preview the Evidence Law Summary Notes

 

First Year Subjects: Contract Law Notes, Criminal Law Notes, Legal Professional Conduct Notes
Second Year Subjects: Property Law Notes, Administrative Law Notes, Business Associations Law Notes
Third Year Subjects: Litigation (Civil Procedure) Law Notes, Litigation (Criminal Procedure) Law Notes, Evidence Law Notes, Federal Constitutional Law Notes
Elective Subjects: Commercial Law Notes, Intellectual Property Law Notes, Legal and Social Theory Notes

Table of Contents for Evidence Law Summary Notes


1.  Introduction. 5

A.   How to use Cram Notes. 5

B.   Abbreviations. 5

2.  Threshold Question – is the Evidence Relevant? 5

A.   Background and relationship evidence. 6

B.   Evidence of state of mind.. 6

3.  Can the Evidence be Excluded? 6

A.   General discretion to exclude evidence. 6

B.   Mandatory exclusion of prejudicial evidence. 7

C.   Definition of “unfairly prejudicial”. 7

D.   Discretion to exclude improperly or illegally obtained evidence. 7

i.        Considerations as to desirability/undesirability. 8

1)     Probative value – s 138(3)(a) 8

2)     Importance of evidence – s 138(3)(b) 8

3)     Nature of relevant offence – s 138(3)(c) 8

4)     Gravity of the police impropriety – s 138(3)(d) 8

5)     Recklessness – s 138(3)(e) 8

6)     Considerations under the ICCPR – s 138(3)(f) 8

7)     Whether other actions will be taken – s 138(3)(g) 9

8)     The difficulty of obtaining evidence without impropriety – s 138(3)(h) 9

E.   General discretion to limit use of evidence. 9

4.  Are there procedural problems with Witness Testimony? 10

A.   Motives to lie and interest in outcome of the case. 10

B.   Competence and compellability. 10

i.        Lack of capacity. 10

ii.       Defendants in criminal proceedings. 10

iii.      Reduced capacity. 10

iv.      Compellability of spouses and others in criminal proceedings generally. 10

C.   Examination in chief 11

i.        Leading questions. 11

D.   Cross-examination.. 11

i.        Leading questions. 11

ii.       Unfavourable witness. 12

1)     Not making genuine atempt to give evidence. 12

2)     Prior inconsistent statement 12

iii.      Improper questions. 12

iv.      Procedural fairness. 13

1)     The rule in Browne v Dunn. 14

E.   Re-examination.. 14

F.    Other procedural elements. 14

i.        Reviving witness’ memory. 14

ii.       Granting leave. 15

iii.      Judicial notice. 15

5.  Challenging the Witness’ Credibility. 15

A.   credibility evidence. 15

B.   Prior inconsistent statements. 16

C.   Exceptions to admissibility. 16

i.        Cross-examination. 16

1)     As to credibility. 16

2)     Rebutting denials. 16

3)     Indirect rehabilitation of witness credibility. 17

4)     Leave. 17

ii.       Re-examination. 17

1)     General exception to credibility rule. 17

2)     Specific exception for prior consistent statement 17

iii.      Examination in chief 18

1)     Suggestion of fabrication and/or reconstruction. 18

iv.      Expert evidence. 18

v.       Attacking credibility of someone not called as witness. 18

6.  Adducing and Challenging Character Evidence 19

A.   Has character evidence been raised?. 19

i.        Circumstances. 19

ii.       Emphatic denial of guilt 19

1)     Responsive. 19

2)     Unresponsive. 19

B.   Rebuttal - general or particular character evidence?. 20

C.   Is leave needed?. 20

D.   Is there a need for a judicial direction?. 21

i.        Judicial direction. 21

ii.       Standard direction. 21

7.  Adducing and Challenging Tendency Evidence 21

A.   Admissibility. 21

i.        Elements. 21

ii.       Has there been notice?. 21

1)     Exceptions to notice requirement for responsive evidence. 21

iii.      Is there significant probative value?. 21

1)     Factors for significant probative value. 22

iv.      Non-responsive evidence. 22

1)     Prosecution - Probative value must outweigh prejudicial effect 22

2)     Defendant – exception. 23

v.       responsive evidence. 23

1)     Rebuttal by Prosecution. 23

2)     Defendants. 23

B.   Limited use for other purposes, even if relevant 23

8.  Adducing and Challenging Coincidence Evidence 24

A.   Admissibility. 24

i.        Elements. 24

1)     2 or more events. 24

ii.       Has there been notice?. 24

1)     Exceptions to notice requirement for responsive evidence. 24

iii.      Is there significant probative value?. 24

iv.      Non-responsive evidence. 25

1)     Prosecution - Probative value must outweigh prejudicial effect 25

2)     Defendant – exception. 25

v.       Responsive evidence. 25

1)     Rebuttal by Prosecution. 25

2)     Defendants. 25

vi.      Distinguishing coincidence evidence and tendency evidence. 25

vii.     Limited use for other purposes, even if relevant 25

9.  Adducing and Challenging Opinion Evidence 26

A.   Is it an opinion?. 26

B.   Exceptions. 26

i.        Alternative use. 26

ii.       Lay opinion (eyewitness) 26

iii.      Expert opinion. 26

1)     Specialised knowledge. 26

2)     Wholly or substantially based. 27

3)     Discretionary exclusions for expert evidence. 27

10.      Adducing and Challenging Identification Evidence 28

A.   Definition of identification evidence. 28

B.   Visual identification.. 28

i.        Definition. 28

ii.       Was an identification parade held?. 28

iii.      Reasonable excuse for not holding parade?. 28

C.   Picture identification.. 29

i.        Definition. 29

ii.       Not admissible if 29

1)     Picture in police custody. 29

2)     Could have held identification parade. 29

D.   Mandatory warning & directions to the jury. 30

11.      Adducing and Challenging Hearsay Evidence 30

A.   Definitions. 30

i.        Previous representation. 30

ii.       Representation. 31

iii.      Asserted fact 31

B.   Admissibility. 31

i.        Is there a ‘previous representation’?. 31

ii.       How is the representation relevant? What fact is it being adduced to prove?. 31

iii.      Is the fact to be proved (purpose of tender) what the declarant intended to assert?  32

1)     Express and implied assertion. 32

2)     Intended and unintended assertions. 32

iv.      Is there another purpose to adducing the evidence of the previous representation?  32

C.   Does it fall within an exception?. 33

i.        Relevant for a non-hearsay purpose (first & second hand hearsay) 33

ii.       First Hand Hearsay. 33

1)     Maker had personal knowledge of asserted fact 33

2)     Maker available. 34

3)     Maker unavailable. 34

iii.      Contemporaneous statements (first hand hearsay) 36

iv.      Business records. 37

v.       Character of and expert opinion about accused persons. 37

12.      Were Judicial Warnings and Directions given? 37

A.   Comment on accused’s failure to give evidence. 37

B.   Unreliable evidence. 38

i.        Evidence of a kind that is unreliable. 38

ii.       Warning to the jury. 38

iii.      Exception. 39

C.   Delay in prosecution.. 39

D.   Children’s evidence. 39

E.   Common law warnings. 40

i.        Longman (mandatory) warning. 40

Preview the Evidence Law Summary Notes

 

First Year Subjects: Contract Law Notes, Criminal Law Notes, Legal Professional Conduct Notes
Second Year Subjects: Property Law Notes, Administrative Law Notes, Business Associations Law Notes
Third Year Subjects: Litigation (Civil Procedure) Law Notes, Litigation (Criminal Procedure) Law Notes, Evidence Law Notes, Federal Constitutional Law Notes
Elective Subjects: Commercial Law Notes, Intellectual Property Law Notes, Legal and Social Theory Notes

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